TITLE: Universal water and sanitation: how did the rich countries do it?
AUTHOR(S): Bisaga I & Norman G
ABSTRACT: In rich countries like the US and the UK, efforts to provide universal water and sanitation began in the 19th century, and have resulted in near-100% coverage. Today, low and low-middle-income countries face a challenge in many respects similar to that faced by these wealthier countries 150 years ago. So how exactly did the rich countries finance water and sanitation coverage? Was private enterprise the main driver, or was investment led by governments? This Finance Brief briefly summarises the history of water and sanitation services provision in the US, the UK, and South Korea, and considers whether this historical experience is relevant to low and middle-income countries today.